Reference Guide for MINERALS


Visitors OCT 1995 to DEC 2020:  10,471,317! 

Reference Guide for: Vitamins    MINERALS    Amino Acids   Herbs   Special Nutrients   Anti-Oxidants   Dietary Fibers   Nutritional Greens   Digestive Nutrients   also see   Nutritional Glossary 

This information is designed to help adults make informed decisions about their health and is intended to be used for general nutritional information and educational purposes only.  It is not intended to prescribe, treat, cure, diagnose or prevent any particular medical problem or disease, or to promote any particular product. Women who are pregnant or nursing should always consult with their doctors before taking any supplements. You should always consult your health care professional for individual guidance for specific health concerns. Persons with medical conditions should seek professional medical care. .

Mineral Overview

As important as vitamins are, they can do nothing for you without minerals. Vitamins cannot be assimilated without the aid of minerals. Although the body can manufacture a few vitamins, it cannot manufacture a single mineral. All tissue and internal fluids contain varying quantities of minerals. Minerals are constituents of the bones, teeth, soft tissue, muscle, blood, and nerve cells. They are vital to overall mental and physical well-being.

HOW THEY WORK: Minerals act as catalysts for many biological reactions within the body, including, muscle response, the transmission of messages through the nervous system, and the utilization of nutrients in food.  See References.


A trace mineral needed by the body in only minuscule amounts; assists in the proper absorption of calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D, especially in older people; maintains healthy bones and prevents osteoporosis; slows the loss of minerals through urination; plays an important role in joint health and has helped those with rheumatoid arthritis; helps to raise estrogen levels, which could prevent bone loss; needed for proper muscle growth; enhances brain function and promotes mental alertness; plays a key role in how the body utilizes energy from fats and sugars.

More on BORONSee References. 

Formulas that contain BORON:  Alert Heart Maximus One Two Three Four Five Six Seven.


IMPORTANCE: Builds strong bones and teeth; treats and prevents osteoporosis; important in the maintenance of a regular heartbeat and in the transmission of nerve impulses; lowers cholesterol levels and helps prevent cardiovascular disease; an effective treatment for PMS; recommended for attention deficit disorders, migraine headaches and periodontal disease; reduces the risk of colon cancer, by neutralizing the toxic effects of cancer promoting fats; reduces the formation of polyps; lowers blood pressure; prevents leg cramps, maintains bone density and strength; helps prevent insomnia and anxiety. A deficiency may lead to aching joints, brittle nails, eczema, elevated blood cholesterol, heart palpitations, high blood pressure, insomnia, muscle cramps, nervousness, numbness in the arms and/or legs, rheumatoid arthritis, rickets, and tooth decay. A high protein diet, caffeine from coffee, carbonated beverages, alcohol, and antacids can diminish calcium levels in your body.

Calcium Carbonate - An excellent form of calcium and the most common found in food supplements. It is refined and purified and contains no toxic metals, such as lead and aluminum. This form of calcium is a little harder to absorb if you have low stomach acid, therefore should be taken with meals to improve absorption.

Calcium Citrate - Is calcium carbonate bound with Citrate Acid. It is easily absorbed regardless of the output of stomach acid.

Calcium Aspartate - Is calcium carbonate bound with Aspartic Acid. It is easily absorbed regardless of the output of stomach acid.

Calcium Lactate - Is calcium carbonate bound with Lactic Acid. It is easily absorbed regardless of the output of stomach acid.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: May result in arm and leg muscles spasms, softening of bones, back and leg cramps, brittle bones, rickets, poor growth, osteoporosis ( a deterioration of the bones), tooth decay, depression.

More on CALCIUM.  See References

Formulas that contain CALCIUMAlert Heart Maximus One Two Three Four Five Six Seven.


IMPORTANCE: Is involved in the metabolism of glucose and is vital in the breakdown of cholesterol, fats, and proteins; maintains stable blood sugar levels through proper insulin utilization; keeping blood sugar levels normal is important because high levels of either can cause damaging effects on the cells lining the arteries, which can cause circulation problems that may lead to clogged arteries; will reduce blood sugar and insulin levels in people with full blown type 2 diabetes; the "Picolinate" form is easily absorbed in the body's cells; helps prevent sugar cravings and sudden drops in energy; promotes a healthy circulatory system; has been used as a treatment for migraine headaches, psoriasis and acne; can prevent anxiety and fatigue; is used extensively by athletes and dieters because it promotes fat loss and increases lean muscle tissue.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: May result in glucose intolerance in diabetics; arteriosclerosis, heart disease, depressed growth, obesity, tiredness.

More on CHROMIUM.  See References

Formulas that contain CHROMIUMAlert Heart Maximus One Two Three Four Five Six Seven.


IMPORTANCE: Aids in the formation of bone, hemoglobin, and red blood cells; promotes connective tissue formation and central nervous system function; works with Vitamin C and zinc to form elastin, a chief component in skin tissue and muscle fibers; is involved in the healing process, energy production, hair and skin coloring, and taste sensitivity; is important for the formation of collagen, one of the fundamental proteins making up bone, skin and connective tissue.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: May result in general weakness, impaired respiration, skin sores. 

More on COPPER.  See References

Formulas that contain COPPERAlert Heart Maximus One Two Three Four Five Six Seven.


IMPORTANCE: The thyroid gland adds iodine to the amino acid tyrosine to create thyroid hormone; aids in the functioning of the thyroid gland which regulates the body's production of energy, helps burn excess fat by stimulating the rate of metabolism; improves mental alacrity; may be helpful in cyclic mastalgia;  keeps the skin, hair and nails healthy.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: May result in an enlarged thyroid gland, slow mental reaction, dry skin & hair, goiter, weight gain, loss of physical & mental vigor.

More on IODINE.  See References

Formulas that contain IODINEAlert Heart Maximus One Two Three Four Five Six Seven.


IMPORTANCE: Important in the formation of hemoglobin, the oxygen carrying factor in red blood cells; nourishes every cell in the body with oxygen; without it your body could not make ATP (the body's primary energy source), produce DNA, or carry out many other critical functions; has shown to improve restless legs syndrome; is necessary for the proper metabolism of 8-Vitamins; prevents anemia and fatigue; promotes good skin tone, and stimulates the immune system; decreases the craving for alcohol. 

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: May result in weakness, paleness of skin, constipation, anemia and a bizarre disorder called "pica" where doctors have reported cases of people eating dirt, chalk, clay, paste, paper, cardboard, ice chips and Styrofoam.  

More on IRON.  See References

Formulas that contain IRONAlert Heart Maximus One Two Three Four Five Six Seven.


IMPORTANCE: Necessary for Calcium and Vitamin C metabolism; converts blood sugars into energy; regulates the neuromuscular activity of the heart, and improves energy production within the heart; dilates the coronary arteries; helps maintain normal heart rhythm; has been used in treating fibromyalgia, migraine and tension headaches, premenstrual syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, hearing loss, binge-eating disorders, tinnitus, and high blood pressure; aids in bone growth and strengthens tooth enamel; controls bad breath and body odor; helps burn fat and aids in fighting depression; prevents calcium deposits, kidney stones, and gallstones; when combined with calcium acts as a natural tranquilizer; promotes relaxation of the bronchial muscles, thus opening airways and making breathing easier; reduces hyperactivity in children, and may help with ADD (attention deficit disorder); eliminates mental confusion, irritability, loss of appetite, insomnia, and muscle cramps. An excessive intake of Calcium will reduce your body's level of Magnesium.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: May result in calcium depletion, heart spasms, nervousness, muscular excitability, confusion; kidney stones. 

More on MAGNESIUM.  See References

Formulas that contain MAGNESIUMAlert Heart Maximus One Two Three Four Five Six Seven.


IMPORTANCE: Needed for protein and fat metabolism, normal bone growth, a healthy nervous system, proper bowel function, and an optimal immune system; used in the formation of cartilage and synovial (lubricating) fluid of the joints; works with the 8 Vitamins to give you an overall feeling of well-being; aids in the formation of mother's milk; necessary for the proper digestion and utilization of food; functions in many enzyme systems, including enzymes involved in blood sugar control, energy metabolism, and thyroid hormone function; increases the activity of the anti-oxidant enzyme (SOD), this enzyme is responsible for preventing the superoxide free radical from destroying cellular components.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: May result in paralysis, convulsions, dizziness, ataxia, loss of hearing, digestive problems, blindness and deafness in infants. 

More on MANGANESE.  See References

Formulas that contain MANGANESEAlert Heart Maximus One Two Three Four Five Six Seven.



A trace mineral needed by the body in only minuscule amounts. Provides energy and vigor by aiding in carbohydrate and fat metabolism; helps with alcohol detoxification and sulfur metabolism; plays a role in the detoxification of cancer-causing chemicals; helps prevent tooth decay; promotes normal cell function; activates the enzyme that produces uric acid - the substance that helps carry excess nitrogen out of the body when you urinate. More on MOLYBDENUM.  See References

Formulas that contain MOLYBDENUMAlert Heart Maximus One Two Three Four Five Six Seven.



Needed for blood clotting, bone and teeth formation, cell growth, contraction of the heart muscle, normal heart rhythm, and kidney function; assists the body in the utilization of vitamins and the conversion of food into energy; is involved in virtually all physiological chemical reactions. 

More on PHOSPHORUS.  See References

Formulas that contain PHOSPHORUSAlert Heart Maximus One Two Three Four Five Six Seven.


IMPORTANCE: An extremely important electrolyte which is essential for a healthy nervous system and a regular heart rhythm; helps prevents strokes, aids in proper muscle contraction, and works with sodium to control the body's water balance; aids in maintaining stable blood pressure and in transmitting electrochemical impulses; regulates the transfer of nutrients through cell membranes; together with magnesium, can help prevent kidney stones; promotes healthy adrenal glands; helps stop the buildup of cholesterol-laden plaque; aids in clear thinking by sending oxygen to the brain, stimulates the kidneys to eliminate poisonous body wastes; very effective in reducing high blood pressure, keeps the heart muscle strong, and prevents leg cramps.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: May result in poor reflexes, nervous disorders, respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, muscle damage. 

More on POTASSIUM.  See References.

Formulas that contain POTASSIUMAlert Heart Maximus One Two Three Four Five Six Seven.


IMPORTANCE: A major anti-oxidant which protect cell membranes; preserves tissue elasticity and youthfulness of the skin; protects and stimulates the immune system; protects against various types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, strokes and heart attacks; protects against cataract formation; alleviates hot flashes and menopausal distress; helps in the treatment and prevention of dandruff and dry skin; raises sperm count and increase fertility in men; protects against a variety of viral infections; plays a vital role in regulating the effects of thyroid hormone on fat metabolism; when combined with Vitamin E & Zinc may provide relief from an enlarged prostate; protects the liver in people with alcoholic cirrhosis; decreases platelet clotting in the bloodstream; slows down aging and hardening of tissues through oxidation; may help protect against the damage caused by air pollution and smoke.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: May result in premature aging, heart disease, psoriasis, dandruff, loose skin, eczema

More on SELENIUM.  See References

Formulas that contain SELENIUMAlert Heart Maximus One Two Three Four Five Six Seven.



Necessary for the formation of collagen for bones and connective tissue; promotes healthy nails, skin, and hair; maintains flexible arteries; plays a major role in preventing cardiovascular disease; counteracts the effects of aluminum on the body, and is believed to be important in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease and osteoporosis; stimulates the immune system and inhibits the aging process in tissues; important for calcium absorption; improves the elasticity and thickness of the skin. 

More on SILICA.  See References.

A trace mineral needed by the body in only minuscule amounts

Formulas that contain SILICAAlert Heart Maximus One Two Three Four Five Six Seven.


Minute portions can powerfully affect health. They are necessary for oxygen transport, energy metabolism, growth, and cell and nerve protection. They are essential in the assimilation and utilization of vitamins and other nutrients. They aid in the digestion process and provide the catalyst for many hormones, enzymes, and essential body functions and reactions. They aid in replacing electrolytes lost through heavy perspiration or diarrhea.  They also protect against toxic reaction and heavy metal poisoning.

More on TRACE MINERALS.   See References.

Formulas that contain TRACE MINERALS:  Alert Heart Maximus One Two Three Four Five Six Seven.


Over 300 enzymes in the body need zinc to order to function properly; is needed to make important antioxidant enzymes; is essential for protein synthesis and collagen formation; governs the contractibility of muscles; helps in the formation of insulin; helps prevent macular degeneration (one of the most common causes of vision loss in the elderly), and helps prevent the onset of cataracts; important for blood stability; exerts a normalizing effect on the prostate and is important in the development of all reproductive organs; is critical in the male sex drive and is involved in hormone metabolism, sperm formation and sperm motility; helps prevent and reduces the length and severity of the common .cold; helps decrease cholesterol deposits; helps heal stomach ulcers, relieves symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis; prevents acne outbreaks, and regulates the activity of oil glands; promotes a healthy immune system and the healing of wounds; has shown to be important in brain function and in the treatment of schizophrenia; makes your fingernails strong and gets rid of white spots on your nails; helps prevent cancer sores, loss of appetite, taste and smell problems, dermatitis, and binge-eating; believed to retard the aging process. 

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: May result in delayed sexual maturity, prolonged healing wounds, white spots on finger nails, retarded growth, stretch marks, fatigue, decreased alertness, susceptibility to infections.  

More on ZINC.  See References

Formulas that contain ZINCAlert Heart Maximus One Two Three Four Five Six Seven.

Reference Guide for: Vitamins    MINERALS    Amino Acids   Herbs   Special Nutrients   Anti-Oxidants   Dietary Fibers   Nutritional Greens   Digestive Nutrients   also see   Nutritional Glossary 

Also see:
Phytochemicals: Nutrients Of The Future

Antioxidants: An Antidote to Aging?
Better Eating for Better Aging
Nutrition Is Key To Successful Aging: Kidd
Latest Concepts in Nutrition
Life Long Weight Management for Health and Happiness
10 Tips to Healthy Eating
New Perspectives on Diet and Cancer
Upbeat on Fiber for Longer Life and Better Health
A Refresher On Water for Long Life and Health 
Daily Recommendations: Vitamins, Minerals & Trace Elements
Suggested Readings and Guide References